Multimedia Glossary - 1





  • DV

    DV stands for Digital Video - video captured to a PC from a digital camcorder.
    There are two methods of storing DV video data, that is, type-1 and type-2. Both are stored usually in AVI files. Any DV stored as type-1 cannot be used with VfW-based editors. Microsoft provides DV encoder and decoder filters for DirectShow only, and will not provide support for encoding or decoding DV video data for VfW.
  • DV Type-1 Method

    The native DV interleaved stream that is produced and consumed in I/O with a DV device contains DV compressed video and pulse code modulated (PCM) audio data. This single interleaved stream can be stored in an AVI file as "ivas" stream (for interleaved video/audio stream). Microsoft refers to this format as a type-1 DV AVI file.
    Because the type-1 format stores data as a single AVI stream, type-1 DV AVI files are not compatible with VfW. DirectShow, however, easily handles type-1 data streams by routing the streams to a DV Splitter filter that produces a DV-encoded video stream and one or more PCM audio streams for playback or subsequent processing.
  • DV Type-2 Method

    Interleaved DV data can also be split into a single video stream and one to four audio streams within an AVI file. Microsoft refers to this format of storing DV data as type-2. This format has the advantage of being backward compatible with VfW, because it contains a standard video stream and at least one standard audio stream.
    The type-2 file format requires a small amount of additional processing to split and multiplex the DV stream during the functions of capture and transmit to IEEE 1394 DV devices.
  • miniDV

    miniDV is the most popular digital camcorder format at the moment.
    miniDV is a video cassette designed for use in miniDV digital camcorders. The picture quality of digital video (DV) recorded on a miniDV cassette is basically identical or better to the quality of DV recorded on a Hi8 or 8mm cassette by a Digital8 camcorder. miniDV can have up to 530 lines of video resolution for some camcorder models. However, miniDV tapes are smaller which allows for smaller camcorders. miniDV tapes are available in lengths of 30 and 60 minutes (plus, recording in LP mode lets you extend total recording time with a 60-minute tape to 90 minutes).
  • DVD

    DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disc.
    DVD is essentially a bigger, faster CD that can hold cinema-like video, better-than-CD audio, and computer data.  
  • DVD-10

    DVD-10 is a double sided single layer DVD. Video DVD, DVD-R/W and DVD+R/W support this format. Effectively this means that DVD-10 is a dual-sided DVD-5 and can hold 8.75 gigabytes of data with 4.38 gigabytes on each side. Two-sided discs need to be flipped over in order to access the other data side. Unfortunately many blank DVD media advertisers mislead customers to believe that these discs are actually blank DVD-9 discs in hope that they could copy their dual-layer discs directly to blank discs.
  • DVD-18

    DVD-18 is a double sided dual layer DVD which can fit up to 17 GB or 15.9 computer GB which some commercial video DVDs are using today (a DVD-18 is basicly four pressed plastic DVD-5s pressed together, they are not burned). Video DVD supports this format but DVD-R/W and DVD+R/W does not support this format.
  • DVD-5

    DVD-5 is a single sided single layer DVD that stores up to about 4.7 GB = 4 700 000 000 bytes and that is 4.38 computer GigaBytes where 1 kilobyte is 1024 bytes(4 700 000 000B/1024 = about 4 589 843KB/1024 = about 4485MB/1024 = about 4.38GB) . Video DVD, DVD-R/W and DVD+R/W supports this format. Often referred to as "single sided, single layer".
  • DVD-9

    DVD-9 is a single sided dual layer DVD which can fit up to 8.5 GB or 7.95 computer GB which many commercial video DVDs are using today (a DVD-9 is basicly two pressed plastic DVD-5s pressed together, they are not burned). Video DVD supports this format but DVD-R/W and DVD+R/W does not support this format.
  • DVD-Audio

    DVD-Audio is music disc, aimed to replace regular audio CD within next few years. DVD-Audio disc can contain 4 - 18 GBs of data, depending on how many layers and sides of the disc are used. Regular DVD-Audio disc contains various copy-protection methods and obviously the audio data itself -- audio can be stored in various formats, including uncompressed (L)PCM format (in frequencies from 44.1kHz upto 192kHz) with bitrates as high as 9.8Mbit/sec. Other formats allowed include Dolby Digital 5.1, MPEG-1 (stereo, audio layers II and III), MPEG-2 (multichannel), DTS and SDDS.
    DVD-Audio discs can't be played with regular DVD-Video players -- the player has to be so-called "Universal DVD" player in order to support DVD-Audio (but if your player has DVD-Audio logo, it supports these discs).
  • DVD-MP3

    This type of disc is created when MP3 audio files are burned on a DVDR/W disc. Some DVD Players can play these discs, but many so far cannot.
  • CSS

    CSS stands for Content Scrambling System.
    In DVD-Video, an encryption scheme designed to protect copyrighted material that resides on a disc by periodically scrambling the data using encryption keys. A tool named Decss can allow users to circumvent it. Although Decss didn't exactly crack the CSS, but instead used leaked decryption keys.

    On a DVD disc, DVD movie files are stored in the VIDEO_TS folder. There is also an AUDIO_TS folder, this is where DVD-Audio would be stored, but usually the folder is empty.

    If you look at the files on a DVD, you will notice that most DVDs have both a VIDEO_TS and AUDIO_TS folder, but the AUDIO_TS folder is usually empty. DVD-Audio would be stored in an AUDIO_TS folder but is a separate format to DVD-Video.
  • VOB

    VOB stands for DVD Video OBject.
    The VOB file is one of the core files found on DVD-Video discs and contains multiplexed Dolby Digital audio (normally AC3 format) and MPEG-2 video. VOB files on a DVD are numbered as follows: vts_XX_y.vob where XX represents the title and Y the part of the title. There can be 99 titles and 10 parts, although vts_XX_0.vob does not contain any video, usually just menu or navigational information. You can find them on a DVD video disc in a subdirectory labelled VIDEO_TS.
  • ISO

    ISO refers also to a CD or DVD image (not picture..) file with an extension of ".iso". The extension comes from the full name of the CD-ROM and DVD-ROM file system specification, ISO 9660. Just like other CD/DVD image formats, ISO is a file that contains full content of the disc, including every single track, directory, file and information about the structure of the disc. Normally ISO files are being used to replicate existing CD/DVD discs, transfer those discs over the network to other location (or to other person) and burn back to CD/DVD which then would be an identical replica of the original disc.
  • miniDVD

    miniDVD is a DVD video written onto a CD-R(W) instead of a DVD disc. miniDVD is also sometimes called cDVD. A miniDVD only fits about 15 minutes of DVD quality video on a 650MB CD-R(W).
    Basically miniDVD is a regular CD that has the same structure as regular DVD-Video has. Most of the standalone DVD players can be fooled to think that the disc inserted is a regular DVD-Video disc and to play it. But, one DVD quality movie (about 4GB) ends up taking 6 or more CDs (about 700MB per CD), Therefor most of the people don't use miniDVDs, but use VCDs, SVCDs or their varieties.
  • VCD

    VCD stands for Video Compact Disc.
    VCD is a standard developed in early 1990's that allows regular CD to contain 74 minutes of video and audio. Both, video and audio, are encoded in MPEG1 format and stored on the CD in specific format. A VCD can be played on almost all standalone DVD Players and of course on all computers with a DVD-ROM or CD-ROM driver with the help of a software based decoder/player.
    VCD is a very popular method for movie distribution in China, Singapore, Malaysia, etc.. Some studios release some of their movies officially for VCD format in Asia . It has almost completely replaced regular VHS format in Asia, because cheap VCD recorders are widely available there. VCD's successor is called SVCD.
  • SVCD

    SVCD stands for Super Video Compact Disc (called also SuperVCD or Chaoji VCD).
    SVCD is a new CD standard developed in 1998 by Chinese consumer electronics manufacturers, Chinese government and VCD consortium (Sony, Philips, Matsushita and JVC) that allows regular CD to contain 35-60 minutes of video and audio. A SVCD is very similiar to a VCD, although SVCD's video bitrate is normally higher than VCD's. SVCD contains very good quality full-motion MPEG2 video along with up to 2 stereo audio tracks (MPEG1 stereo audio layer II, MPEG2 stereo audio layer II or MPEG2 Multi-Channel 5.1 surround audio) and also 4 selectable subtitles. A SVCD can be played on many standalone DVD Players and of course on all computers with a DVD-ROM or CD-ROM driver with the help of a software based decoder/player.
    Just like VCDs (and audio CDs), SVCDs require a specific way how they are burned on the CD -- just sticking all the required files into CD structure doesn't make disc a SVCD compatible. Most of the new CD burning applications support SVCD already, so authoring your own SVCDs should be relatively easy.
  • XVCD

    XVCD stands for eXtended VCD.
    XVCD has same features as VCD but it is possible to use higher resolution and higher bitrates to get higher video quality. XVCD burned in "VCD" Mode on a CD-R or CD-RW can be played on some hardware VCD or DVD players and many computers with appropriate software.

    XSVCD stands for eXtended SVCD.
    XSVCD has same features as SVCD but it is possible to use higher resolution and higher bitrates to get higher video quality. XSVCD burned in "SVCD" Mode on a CD-R or CD-RW can be played on some hardware DVD players and many computers with appropriate software like a software DVD player or a media player with a MPEG-2 codec.
  • VHS

    VHS stands for Vertical Helix Scan.
    VHS is the video casette format and technology introduced by JVC in 1976. It is an analog format capable of delivering 240 lines of video resolution, along with stereo sound that's nearly as good as CD. Blank tapes usually feature either 120 minutes or 160 minutes of recording time at the highest recording speed (6 hours or 8 hours at the slowest speed).
  • VHSRip

    In the Internet piracy scene, this term means a release of a movie, or some form of video, that has been taken from a VHS source. It has been captured and then re-encoded to a digital format. Some groups are dedicated to releasing VCD copies of movies that haven't been released on DVD as of yet.
  • SVHS

    SVHS stands for SuperVHS.
    SVHS is an improved, high-resolution VHS standard developed by JVC to offer better video quality than the VHS format. SVHS recording can't be played back correctly with VHS videos, unless VHS VCR has something called "super quality playback" that allows playing SVHS tapes.
  • D-VHS

    DVHS is a digital recording and playback format for High Definition material. It's based on the existing 1/2" VHS-sized cassettes.
  • CD-DA

    CD-DA stands for compact disc digital audio.
    It is the original music CD format storing digital PCM data. Defined by the Red Book standard.
  • CDA

    CDA stands for CD Audio.
    You can play .cda files only from a CD-ROM. The tracks however, can be ripped to your HDD as a digital audio format like WAV, wma, or MP3 files.
  • DAT

    DAT is used to refer to a certain tape backup format. But in audio/video terminology it normally refers to files that VideoCD has in its SEGMENT or MPEGAV directiories. These DAT files are basically MPEG-1 files with an additional information and certain specific file structure -- they are NOT "real" MPEG-1 files and you need to convert them back to "real" MPEG-1 files in order to edit them even that most of the software players treat them as regular MPEG-1 files.
  • DTS

    DTS stand for Digital Theater Systems Digital Sound and is a product of DTS, Inc.,
    DTS is a multichannel audio compression format similar to Dolby Digital/AC3 used in DVD-video discs, DVD-audio, 5.1 channel audio CDs, and some movie theaters. DTS differs from Dolby Digital in that it generally uses higher data rates and many have the opinion that DTS is better quality. DTS can only be on a DVD-video disc if accompanied by a Dolby Digital or LPCM track (for North America ) or mpeg audio and LPCM (European Community) to ensure compatibility, because DVD players are only required to decode those standards in those regions.

Glossary 2 - 3GP, ASF, AVI, MPEG, QuickTime, MOV, RM, WMV, DivX, XviD, etc.

Glossary 3 - AAC, M4A, M4P, OGG, MP3, ID3 Tag, WMA, WAV, OGG Vorbis, etc.

Glossary 4 - NTSC, PAL, ASX, Region, Codec, Streaming, DRM